Which type of temporary pacing usually is used for a patient having major cardiac surgery?
a. Epicardial pacing
b. Transvenous pacing
c. Noninvasive transcutaneous pacing
d. Biventricular pacing.
Correct answer: a. Epicardial pacing is used only with cardiac surgery patients. Common postoperative complications of cardiac valve surgery and coronary artery bypass surgery include episodic sinus bradycardia, second- and third-degree heart block, and asystole.