American Pain Society. Principles of Analgesic Use in the Treatment of Acute Pain and Cancer Pain. 6th ed. Glenview, IL: American Pain Society; 2008.
American Society of Anesthesiologists Task Force on Sedation and Analgesia by Non-Anesthesiologists. Practice guidelines for sedation and analgesia by non-anesthesiologists. Anesthesiology. 2002;96:1004-1017.
Cohen MR. Dosage guidelines revisited. Nursing. 2003;33(1):18-20.
Institute for Safe Medication Practices. Reducing patient harm from opiates. www.ismp.org/Newsletters/acutecare/articles/20070222.asp. Accessed November 17, 2009.
McCaffery M, Pasero CL. Pain: Clinical Manual. 2nd ed. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 1999.
Pasero C, McCaffery M. Monitoring sedation: it’s the key to preventing opioid-induced respiratory depression. AJN. 2002;102(2):67-69.
Smeltzer J, Cohen, MR. Medication error reporting systems. In Cohen MR, ed. Medication Errors. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: American Pharmaceutical Association; 2006:511-548.
Wilson BA, Shannon MT, Shields KM. Pearson Nurse’s Drug Guide 2010. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall; 2009.