American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. Guidelines for Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programs. 3rd ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2004.
Barnes PJ, Celli BR. Systemic manifestations and comorbidities of COPD. Eur Respir J. 2009;33(5):1165-1185.
Bauldoff GS, Diaz PT. Improving COPD outcomes. Nurse Practitioner. 2006;31(8):26-43.
Bradley JM, O’Neill B. Short term ambulatory oxygen for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005;2:CD004356.
Celli B, MacNee W; ATS/ERS Task Force. Standards for the diagnosis and care of patients with COPD: a summary of the ATS/ERS position paper. Eur Respir J. 2004;23:922-946.
Chapman KR, Mannino DM, Soriano JB, et al. Epidemiology and costs of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Eur Resp J. 2006;27(1):188-207.
Deglin JH, Vallerand AH. Davis Drug Guide. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis; 2009.
Fishman AL, Elias JA, Fishman JA, et al. Fishman’s Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders. 4th ed. New York, NY: McGraw Hill; 2008.
Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease. Global Strategy for the Diagnosis, Management, and Prevention of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Medical Communication Resources, Inc; 2008.
Mauer J, Frost A, Estenne M, et al. International guidelines for the selection of lung transplant candidates. The International Society of Heart & Lung Transplant, American Thoracic Society, American Association of Transplant Physicians, the European Respiratory Society. Transplantation. 1998;66(7):951-956.
Murray CJ, Lopez AD. Alternative projections of mortality and disability by cause, 1990-2020: Global Burden of Disease Study. Lancet. 1997;349:1498-1504.
National Emphysema Treatment Trial Research Group. A randomized trial comparing lung volume reduction surgery with medical therapy for severe emphysema. N Engl J Med. 2003;348(21):2059-2073.
Nici L, Donner C, Wouters E, et al. American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement on pulmonary rehabilitation. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;173(12):1390-1413.
Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Group. Continuous or nocturnal oxygen therapy in hypoxemic chronic obstructive lung disease: a clinical trial. Ann Intern Med. 1980;93:391-398.
Ries AL, Bauldoff GS, Carlin BW, et al. Pulmonary rehabilitation: Joint ACCP/AACVPR evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2007;131:4S-42S.
Tibbals SC. Sexuality. In: Turner J, McDonald G, Larter N. Handbook of Adult and Pediatric Respiratory Home Care. St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 1994.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Treating tobacco use and dependence: 2008 update. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/bv.fcgi?rid=hstat2.chapter.28163. Accessed September 23, 2009.